How Do Industrial Electric Heaters Work?

industrial electric heaters

All types of industrial electric heaters create heat by converting electrical energy. The material used to transfer this heat varies considerably and can rely on one or more of the three methods to transfer heat:

  • Convection: Electric process heaters that use convection transfer heat by fluid motion. As the liquid or gas heats up, it creates either forced or free convection. Forced convection uses external force to increase the flow speed of the transfer material, typically with stirring arms or a fan. Free convection leverages the natural movement of hot and cold materials to create movement.
  • Radiation: Radiation is a heat transfer method that relies on electromagnetic waves. Raising an object above absolute zero creates thermal energy in the form of electromagnetic waves, which spread to surrounding gases, fluids and solid objects.
  • Conduction: Finally, conduction is perhaps the most used method of heat transfer through solid materials. Instead of transferring heat through a liquid or gas, conductive electric heating units heat solid objects that are directly in contact with them. The process works by transferring heat through vibrating microscopic atoms.

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